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BIO 142 / NAS 162: Organ Systems & Diseases (AL): Citing Sources

Help with Citing Resources: APA & MLA

APA Manual Cover    

Many of the article databases that NOVA subscribes to, such as Ebsco's CINAHL, will provide full citations. These citations should be carefully checked for accuracy.

You can ask a librarian for help, or consult the following websites:

Two Types of Citations

Your paper will contain two types of citations:

1. References/Works Cited - this is a list of full citations at the end of your paper.  Each reference includes complete information on each source, such as author, title, and publication date.  
Create the References/Works Cited list first - you will then base your in-text citation on the full reference. 
2. In-text citations/parenthetical references - these are brief versions from your References/Works Cited list.  You place in-text citations in the body of your paper to let your reader know which of your sources (listed in full at the end of your paper) a particular piece of information came from.  Use in-text citations both when you quote AND when you paraphrase.

Example (in APA style)

Excerpt from student paper (includes parenthetical reference at end of second sentence; that parenthetical reference was created based on the full reference further below):

Of the roughly 35,000 new cases of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers diagnosed in 2009 in the United States, 61% were among women and 39% among men. African-Americans and Hispanics are affected far more than individuals of European descent, although other factors such as age, socioeconomic status, and geographic region affect susceptibility to HPV (Vidal et al., 2014).

 

Full reference from Reference List at end of student paper (create this reference first; you will base the in-text reference on this full reference):

Vidal, A. C., Smith, J. S., Valea, F., Bentley, R., Gradison, M., Yarnall,
     K. S., ... & Hoyo, C. (2014). HPV genotypes and cervical
     intraepithelial neoplasia in a multiethnic cohort in the southeastern
     USA. Cancer Causes & Control, 25(8), 1055-1062.
     doi: 10.1007/s10552-014-0406-2

Why and When to Cite

Why to Cite:

  • Give credit to the authors of the sources you used.
  • Provide evidence you did research -- good, credible sources give your work more authority.
  • Allows your reader to locate the sources you used.
  • Avoid plagiarism.

When to Cite:

You should cite a source if you reproducequoteparaphrase, or summarize ideas and/or media created by other individuals. When in doubt, cite!

 

Plagiarism Has Consequences

Plagiarism may not seem like a big deal, but there can be some severe and/or long lasting effects:

  • Failing grade (assignment and/or course)
  • Note on transcript for academic dishonesty
  • Loss of financial aid
  • Academic probation or expulsion
  • Limited career opportunities (can become a barrier to getting a job or can cause loss of employment)

Plagiarism Resources

Don't Plagiarize

The following websites may help you better understand and avoid plagiarism. Remember that there are serious consequences for plagiarizing.