Skip to main content

HIS 102: History of Western Civilization II (Campbell-LO): Citing Sources

Direct comments to jcombs@nvcc.edu

Why and When to Cite

Why to Cite:

  • Give credit to the authors of the sources you used.
  • Provide evidence you did research -- good, credible sources give your work more authority.
  • Allows your reader to locate the sources you used.
  • Avoid plagiarism.

When to Cite:

You should cite a source if you reproducequoteparaphrase, or summarize ideas and/or media created by other individuals. When in doubt, cite!

Footnotes & Endnotes

You should include a note (endnote or footnote) each time you use a source, whether through a direct quote or through a paraphrase or summary. Footnotes will be added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, and endnotes will be compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document.

In either case, a superscript number corresponding to a note with the bibliographic information for that source should be placed in the text following the end of the sentence or clause in which the source is referenced.

The first note for each source should include all relevant information about the source: author’s full name, source title, and facts of publication. If you cite the same source again, the note need only include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title (if more than four words), and page number(s).

The footnote or endnote itself begins with the appropriate number followed by a period and then a space.

 

Purdue Online Writing Lab. (2014). Chicago Manual of Style 16th Edition. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/01/

Citation Style: Chicago

Many of the article databases that NOVA subscribes to, such as Proquest and Ebsco's Academic Search Complete, will provide citations. These citations should be carefully checked for accuracy. You can also ask a librarian for help, or consult the websites listed below:

Plagiarism

Plagiarism Has Consequences:

Plagiarism may not seem like a big deal, but there can be some severe and/or long lasting effects:

  • Failing grade (assignment and/or course)
  • Note on transcript for academic dishonesty
  • Loss of financial aid
  • Academic probation or expulsion
  • Limited career opportunities (can become a barrier to getting a job or can cause loss of employment)

Types of Plagiarism:

There are many different types of plagiarism, including self-plagiarism.