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Using Sources: Evaluating Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism: Two Types of Citation

In-Text vs Works Cited/Reference List

Students often get confused about the two types of citations.

The first type are in-text citations (also called parenthetical citations), which appear throughout your paper at the end of sentences that you are citing.  These usually include the authors, date of publication (APA only) and page number being cited.  The format will differ for APA and MLA.  An example in MLA format:

Ernest Hemingway wrote all of his novels and stories while standing (Grooms 27).

The second type of citation is the works cited (MLA) or reference list (APA).  This is a list of all sources used in your research and appears at the end of your paper.  Examples are provided in the links in the box to the right.

The Two Types of Citations in MLA

There are two types of citations:

♦ Works Cited (at the end of your paper)

The works cited page lists all of the sources that you used.

MLA Works Cited Page


♦ In-Text or Parenthetical Citations (within the paper)

In-text citations tell your professor which source you used at a specific point in the paper.

In-Text Citation in MLA

The Two Types of Citations in APA

There are two types of citations:

♦ Reference List (at the end of your paper)

The references page lists all of the sources that you used.

Reference List in APA Format


♦ In-Text or Parenthetical Citations (within the paper)

In-text citations tell your professor which source you used at a specific point in the paper.

APA In-Text Citations