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NOVA APA Citation Style Guide: Home

This style guide will help you cite the most common types of materials required in research projects and papers. - Guide by Eliza Selander. Direct comments to

More Help with APA Formatting & Citations


You can always ask a librarian for help, however the following websites may also be of use:

Plagiarism Resources

Don't Plagiarize

The following websites may help you better understand and avoid plagiarism.  Remember that there are serious consequences for plagiarizing.

Two Types of Citations in APA

In-Text or Parenthetical Citations

In-text citations tell your professor which source you used at a specific point in the paper.
These citations also correspond to the full citation found in the Reference List at the end of your paper.
Here are four examples of in-text citations:

APA in-text examples

Reference List Citations

The reference list includes full citations all sources used in your paper.

APA references page example


Why and When to Cite

Plagiarism Has Consequences

Comic strip image - plagiarism has consequences

Types of Plagiarism

Image about self-plagiarismClick image for source.

Plagiarism may not seem like a "big deal," but there can be some severe and/or long lasting effects:

  • Failing grade (assignment and/or course)
  • Note on transcript for academic dishonesty
  • Loss of financial aid
  • Academic probation or expulsion
  • Limited career opportunities (can become a barrier to getting a job or can cause loss of employment)

There are many different types of plagiarism, including self-plagiarism.

You should cite a source if you reproduce, quote, paraphrase, or summarize ideas and/or media created by other individuals. When in doubt, cite!