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NOVA APA Citation Style Guide: Home

This style guide will help you cite the most common types of materials required in research projects and papers. - Guide by Eliza Selander. Direct comments to eselander@nvcc.edu.

More Help with APA Formatting & Citations

APA

You can always ask a librarian for help, however the following websites may also be of use:

Plagiarism Resources

Don't Plagiarize

The following websites may help you better understand and avoid plagiarism.  Remember that there are serious consequences for plagiarizing.

Two Types of Citations in APA

In-Text or Parenthetical Citations

In-text citations tell your professor which source you used at a specific point in the paper.
These citations also correspond to the full citation found in the Reference List at the end of your paper.
Here are four examples of in-text citations:
  1. Name the author(s) and provide a direct quotation:
    • Pollan (2001) explains that "the apple, like the settlers themselves, had to forsake its former domestic life and return to the wild before it could be reborn as an American" (p. 13).
  2. Provide a direct quotation without naming the author(s) directly:
    • "In effect, the apple like the settlers themselves, had to forsake its former domestic life and return to the wild before it could be reborn as an American" (Pollan, 2001, p. 13).
  3. Name the author(s) and paraphrase:
    • Michael Pollan (2001) compares the apple to the settler, because both required an experience in the wild in order to fully express the American experience (p.13).
  4. Paraphrase without naming the author(s) directly:
    • One writer compares the apple to the settler, because both required an experience in the wild in order to fully express the American experience (Pollan, 2001, p.13).
 

Reference List Citations

The reference list includes full citations all sources used in your paper.

Hauter, W. (2012). Foodopoly: The Battle Over the Future of Food and Farming America. New York: New Press.

Pollan, M. (2001). The Botany of Desire. New York: Random House.

Why and When to Cite

Plagiarism Has Consequences

Comic strip image - plagiarism has consequences

Types of Plagiarism

Image about self-plagiarismClick image for source.

Plagiarism may not seem like a "big deal," but there can be some severe and/or long lasting effects:

  • Failing grade (assignment and/or course)
  • Note on transcript for academic dishonesty
  • Loss of financial aid
  • Academic probation or expulsion
  • Limited career opportunities (can become a barrier to getting a job or can cause loss of employment)

There are many different types of plagiarism, including self-plagiarism.

You should cite a source if you reproduce, quote, paraphrase, or summarize ideas and/or media created by other individuals. When in doubt, cite!