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Chicago/Turabian Citation Style Guide

This guide will help you cite the most common types of materials required in research papers and projects. - Guide by Eliza Selander. Direct comments to

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Two Types of Citations in Chicago

In Chicago Style, there are two (2) types of formatting choices. The Notes and Bibliography style, which utilizes footnotes and endnotes both for citing material and also to provide extra information should the author wish to, and the Author-Date style

Footnote Citations (Notes and Bibliography)

Citations for footnotes will differ depending on the type of resource you are citing. In general, CMS requires a full citation (like in your bibliography), with a few differences in your footnote. Differences include:

  • The author(s)'s name(s) will be listed as firstname lastname, rather than lastname, firstname like it is in the Bibliography. 
  • The publication information will be in parentheses.
  • There will be a comma after the publication information, with page numbers citing either your quote or the pages in which you found the information you're using.


1. Barry Estabrook. Pig Tales: An Omnivore's Quest for Sustainable Meat. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2015), 15-25.

In some cases, it may be appropriate to use a shortened citation in a footnote. That would look like this

1. Estabrook, Pig Tales, 15-25.

In-Text or Parenthetical Citations (Author-Date)

In-text citations can also be used to tell your professor which source you used at a specific point in the paper.

These citations also correspond to the full citation found in the Reference List at the end of your paper.

Here are three examples of in-text citations:

  1. Use a signal phrase and a quote. A signal phrase introduces the author in a lead in a sentence with a quote, and then places the publication year and page number at the end.
    • Pollan explains that "the apple, like the settlers themselves, had to forsake its former domestic life and return to the wild before it could be reborn as an American"  (2001,13).
  2. Use a direct quote. A direct quote places the author, publication year and page number in parenthesis at the end.
    • "In effect, the apple like the settlers themselves, had to forsake its former domestic life and return to the wild before it could be reborn as an American" (Pollan, 2001, 13).
  3. Use a signal phrase and a paraphrase. A signal phrase introduces the author in the sentence, and rather than quote the author directly, you restate the author's ideas in your own words. This is followed by the publication year and page number in parenthesis.
    • Michael Pollan compares the apple to the settler, because both required an experience in the wild in order to fully express the American experience (2001, 13).


Reference List Citations

The reference list includes full citations all sources used in your paper. This should be organized alphabetically according to author last name. If your source has no author, use the first letter of the title. For the Notes and Bibliography style, this list of references will be called "Bibliography." If you are using the Author Date style, title your list "References" or "Works Cited." Note the difference in the following two examples of where the date is placed. 

Example: Bibliography (Notes and Bibliography Style)

Estabrook, Barry. Pig Tales: An Omnivore's Quest for Sustainable MeatNew York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2015.

Pollan, Michael. The Botany of Desire. New York: Random House, 2001.

Example: References (Author-Date Style)

Estabrook, Barry. 2015Pig Tales: An Omnivore's Quest for Sustainable Meat. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Pollan, Michael. 2001The Botony of Desire. New York: Random House. 

Why and When to Cite

Plagiarism Has Consequences

Comic strip image - plagiarism has consequences

Types of Plagiarism

Image about self-plagiarismClick image for source.

Plagiarism may not seem like a "big deal," but there can be some severe and/or long lasting effects:

  • Failing grade (assignment and/or course)
  • Note on transcript for academic dishonesty
  • Loss of financial aid
  • Academic probation or expulsion
  • Limited career opportunities (can become a barrier to getting a job or can cause loss of employment)

There are many different types of plagiarism, including self-plagiarism.

You should cite a source if you reproduce, quote, paraphrase, or summarize ideas and/or media created by other individuals. When in doubt, cite!

Plagiarism Resources

Don't Plagiarize

The following websites may help you better understand and avoid plagiarism.  Remember that there are serious consequences for plagiarizing.