For individual research help, schedule an appointment to meet with a librarian.
In Chicago Style, there are two (2) types of formatting choices. The Notes and Bibliography style, which utilizes footnotes and endnotes both for citing material and also to provide extra information should the author wish to, and the Author-Date style.
Footnote Citations (Notes and Bibliography)
Citations for footnotes will differ depending on the type of resource you are citing. In general, CMS requires a full citation (like in your bibliography), with a few differences in your footnote. Differences include:
1. Barry Estabrook. Pig Tales: An Omnivore's Quest for Sustainable Meat. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2015), 15-25.
In some cases, it may be appropriate to use a shortened citation in a footnote. That would look like this:
1. Estabrook, Pig Tales, 15-25.
In-Text or Parenthetical Citations (Author-Date)
In-text citations can also be used to tell your professor which source you used at a specific point in the paper.
These citations also correspond to the full citation found in the Reference List at the end of your paper.
Here are three examples of in-text citations:
Reference List Citations
The reference list includes full citations all sources used in your paper. This should be organized alphabetically according to author last name. If your source has no author, use the first letter of the title. For the Notes and Bibliography style, this list of references will be called "Bibliography." If you are using the Author Date style, title your list "References" or "Works Cited." Note the difference in the following two examples of where the date is placed.
Example: Bibliography (Notes and Bibliography Style)
Estabrook, Barry. Pig Tales: An Omnivore's Quest for Sustainable Meat. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2015.
Pollan, Michael. The Botany of Desire. New York: Random House, 2001.
Example: References (Author-Date Style)
Estabrook, Barry. 2015. Pig Tales: An Omnivore's Quest for Sustainable Meat. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Pollan, Michael. 2001. The Botony of Desire. New York: Random House.
Plagiarism Has Consequences
Types of Plagiarism
Plagiarism may not seem like a "big deal," but there can be some severe and/or long lasting effects:
There are many different types of plagiarism, including self-plagiarism.
You should cite a source if you reproduce, quote, paraphrase, or summarize ideas and/or media created by other individuals. When in doubt, cite!
The following websites may help you better understand and avoid plagiarism. Remember that there are serious consequences for plagiarizing.