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MLA 9 Citation Style Guide

Articles (Online)

Author LastName, FirstName. "Title of Article: Subtitle." Title of Journal/Newspaper/Magazine, vol. #, no. #, Day Month Year, pp. Page Range. Database or URL.

AUTHOR: For 1-2 authors, list all (See 1st, 2nd and 3rd examples below). For 3 or more authors, list the first followed by et al. (See 4th example below). If no author is given, skip and start with article title (See 5th example below).

VOL./NO.: Scholarly journals usually have volume and issue numbers, but newspapers and magazines do not. If you do not see volume and issue numbers, skip this element (See 2nd, 5th and 6th examples below).

DAY MONTH YEAR: Date of publication may be given in many forms – year, month year or day month year. If no date is listed, skip it.

PAGE RANGE: If the article is more than one page, use pp. If it is all on one page, use p. Newspaper articles are often printed on non-consecutive pages. For example, a front page story might continue on page 6. For these articles, write the first page and a plus sign (See 2nd example below). If no page range is listed, skip it (See 5th and 6th examples below).

DATABASE/URL: URLs are not needed for articles from library databases, as long as you give the name of the database. Include URL if your article came from a website, like (See 5th example below). Do not include http://. Your professor may ask that you omit URL for neatness.

1. Scholarly Article
Baker, Laurence.Genetic and Environmental Causes of Childhood Antisocial Behavior: A Multi-Year Study.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol. 116, no. 2, 2017, pp. 219-36. ProQuest.

2. Newspaper Article
Castel, David, Jr.Chocolate.New York Times, 27 Sept. 2017, pp. B1+. Academic Search Complete.

3. Scholarly Article
Piloni, Natacha E., and Jess Matlesky. "Acute Iron Overload and Oxidative Stress in the Brain." Toxicology, vol. 314, no.1, 2017, p. 174. Academic Search Complete.

4. Scholarly Article
Carmona, Salvador, et al. "Brutal Borders? Examining Treatment of Deportees During Arrest." Social Forces, vol. 85, no.1, fall 2017, pp. 182-95. ProQuest.

5. Magazine Article
“Surprising Changes in Childhood Obesity: Are Policy Changes Working?” Time, Aug. 2017.

6. Viewpoint Article
Fisher, Richard. “Smartphones are Transforming Daily Life.” Smartphones, 2017. Opposing Viewpoints.


Author LastName, FirstName. “Title of Webpage.” Title of Website, Publisher, Date of Publication, URL.

AUTHOR: Many websites do not list an author. If no author is given, skip and start with title (See 2nd, 3rd and 4th examples below).

WEBPAGE/WEBSITE: A website is a collection of many webpages. For example, the library homepage is one webpage on the NOVA website. If you use only one part of a website, cite the webpage (See 1st, 2nd and 4th examples below). If you use the entire website, do not cite a specific webpage (See 3rd example below).

PUBLISHER: Publisher is usually listed at the bottom of a page, beside ©. If no publisher is listed, skip it. If the organization that published a website also authored it, list the organization as the publisher only and leave the author section blank (See 4th example below). If the publisher’s name is in the title of the webpage, skip it. For example, the site titled National Autism Association is published by the National Autism Association (See 2nd and 3rd examples below).

DATE OF PUBLICATION: Date of publication may be given in many forms – year, month year or day month year. If no date is listed, skip it and list a date of access at the end of the citation, after URL. (See 4th example below).

URL: Do not include http://. Your professor may ask that you omit URL for neatness.

1. Webpage with an Author
Schneider, Barbara. “Poll: Fewer Americans Support Stricter Gun Control Laws.” CNNPolitics, Cable News Network, 8 Apr. 2017,

2. Webpage with No Author
“Autism Fact Sheet.” National Autism Association, 2017,

3. Website
National Autism Association, 2017,

4. Webpage with No Author, Listing Access Date
“Attitudes Toward a Law Restricting the Possession of Handguns: United States, Selected Years 1959-2012.” Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, University at Albany / Hindelang Criminal Justice Research Center, Mar. 2017, Accessed 22 Oct. 2017.


Film Title. Production Company, Release Year. Database.

Author. “Video Title.” YouTube, Day Month Year, URL.

1. Film from a Database
The Making of the Constitution. Cambridge Educational, 2017. Films on Demand.

2. Film on DVD
Attack of the Crab Monsters. Paramount Pictures, 1957.

3. Video from YouTube or Streaming Service
@MrMeow27. “Funniest Cat Video Ever.” YouTube, 22 Apr. 2017,


Author LastName, FirstName. Title of Book: Subtitle. E-book, Publisher, Year. Database or URL.

EDITION: If an edition number is given, list it after the title (See 2nd example below).

DATABASE OR URL: For ebooks from a library database (like EBSCO eBook Collection), list the database (See 1st example below). For ebooks from the open web (like Google Books), list URL (See 2nd example below). Your professor may ask that you omit URL for neatness.

1. eBook from an eBook Collection
Bloom, Harold. Writing About Amy Tan. E-book, Greenwood, 2016. EBSCO eBook Collection.
2. eBook from a Website
Katz, Donovan. This Land was Theirs: A Study of Native North Americans. 9th ed., e-book, Oxford University Press, 2016.

Media (Video, Images, Sound, Social Media...)