Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Highly Recommended APA Resource
APA Format Guidelines by Purdue OWL
This is a landing page for a huge resource. See the site menu (left side, lower down the page if you're on a desktop or laptop) for links to detailed instructions examples for all kinds of sources.
The Basics of APA Citation: In-text vs Reference list
In-Text or Parenthetical Citations
In-text citations tell your professor which source you used at a specific point in the paper.
These citations also correspond to the full citation found in the Reference List at the end of your paper.
Here are four examples of in-text citations:
Name the author(s) and provide a direct quotation:
Pollan (2001) explains that "the apple, like the settlers themselves, had to forsake its former domestic life and return to the wild before it could be reborn as an American" (p. 13).
Provide a direct quotation without naming the author(s) directly:
"In effect, the apple like the settlers themselves, had to forsake its former domestic life and return to the wild before it could be reborn as an American"
(Pollan, 2001, p. 13).
Name the author(s) and paraphrase:
Michael Pollan (2001) compares the apple to the settler, because both required an experience in the wild in order to fully express the American experience (p.13).
Paraphrase without naming the author(s) directly:
One writer compares the apple to the settler, because both required an experience in the wild in order to fully express the American experience
(Pollan, 2001, p.13).
Reference List Citations
The reference list includes full citations all sources used in your paper.
Hauter, W. (2012).
Foodopoly: The Battle Over the Future of Food and Farming America. New York: New Press.
Pollan, M. (2001). The Botany of Desire. New York: Random House.
Why and When to Cite
Plagiarism Has Consequences
Types of Plagiarism
Click image for source.
Plagiarism may not seem like a "big deal," but there can be some severe and/or long lasting effects:
Failing grade (assignment and/or course)
Note on transcript for academic dishonesty
Loss of financial aid
Academic probation or expulsion
Limited career opportunities (can become a barrier to getting a job or can cause loss of employment)
There are many different types of plagiarism, including self-plagiarism.
You should cite a source if you reproduce, quote, paraphrase, or summarize ideas and/or media created by other individuals. When in doubt, cite!
For individual research help, schedule an appointment to meet with a librarian.