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BIO 142: Case Study Research (Alexandria)

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Two Types of Citations

Your paper will contain two types of citations:

1. In-text citations/parenthetical references
These are brief versions from your References/Works Cited list.  You place in-text citations in the body of your paper to let your reader know which of your sources (listed in full at the end of your paper) a particular piece of information came from.  Use in-text citations both when you quote AND when you paraphrase.

2. References/Works Cited 
This is a list of full references at the end of your paper.  Each reference includes complete information on each source, such as author, title, and publication date.  

Create the References/Works Cited list first - you will then base your in-text citation on the full reference. 

Examples (in APA style)

In-Text Citation
Excerpt from student paper (includes parenthetical reference at end of second sentence):

Of the roughly 35,000 new cases of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers diagnosed in 2009 in the United States, 61% were among women and 39% among men. African-Americans and Hispanics are affected far more than individuals of European descent, although other factors such as age, socioeconomic status, and geographic region affect susceptibility to HPV (Vidal et al., 2014).


Full Reference 
From Reference List at end of student paper (create this reference first; you will base the in-text citation on this full reference):

Vidal, A. C., Smith, J. S., Valea, F., Bentley, R., Gradison, M., Yarnall, K. S.H., Ford, A.,
    Overcash, F., Grant, K., Murphy, S. K., & Hoyo, C. (2014). HPV genotypes and cervical
     intraepithelial neoplasia in a multiethnic cohort in the southeastern USA.
     Cancer Causes & Control, 25(8), 1055-1062.  doi: 10.1007/s10552-014-0406-2

Citing DynaMed in APA

Below are examples of how to cite a specific record, a drug record, and a weekly update from DynaMed.  Also included is information on how to do an in-text citation.

Use the examples given, replacing the last update/published date, article title, retrieved from date, and url with the information for the specific record that you are citing.


Citing a specific record:

DynaMed. (2018, June 3). Acetaminophen poisoning. Ipswich, MA: EBSCO Information Services. Retrieved May 15, 2019, 


Citing a specific drug record:

Truven Health Analytics Inc., DynaMed. (2018, Nov 30). Varenicline. Ipswich, MA: EBSCO Information Services. Retrieved
     May 15, 2019, from


Citing a specific lab record:

Truven Health Analytics Inc., DynaMed. (2015, April 25). Cholesterol serum measurement. Ipswich, MA: EBSCO Information
     Services. Retrieved May 15, 2019, from


Citing using an in text citation:

Severe effects of acetaminophen poisoning are more common after age 40. (DynaMed, 2019).


Why and When to Cite

Why to Cite:

  • Give credit to the authors of the sources you used.
  • Provide evidence you did research -- good, credible sources give your work more authority.
  • Allows your reader to locate the sources you used.
  • Avoid plagiarism.


When to Cite:

You should cite a source if you reproducequoteparaphrase, or summarize ideas and/or media created by other individuals. (Note: in the sciences, you will typically paraphrase and not quote directly.) 
When in doubt, cite!


Plagiarism Has Consequences

Plagiarism may not seem like a big deal, but there can be some severe and/or long lasting effects:

  • Failing grade (assignment and/or course)
  • Note on transcript for academic dishonesty
  • Loss of financial aid
  • Academic probation or expulsion
  • Limited career opportunities (can become a barrier to getting a job or can cause loss of employment)