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Citing Media

Direct comments to mkclark@nvcc.edu

Citation examples: Films, online videos, TV series

If you are citing a direct quotation from a film, you can use the time stamp in place of a page number within the in-text citation.

Template

Director, A. A. (Director). (Year). Title of video [Film]. Production Company.

Examples

Bier, S. (Director). (2018). Bird box[Film]. Netflix; Chris Morgan Productions; Dylan Clark Productions.

(Bier, 2018, 16:30)

Guggenheim, D. (Director). (2006). An inconvenient truth [Film]. Lawrence Bender Productions; Participant Productions.

(Guggenheim, 2006, 23:13)

Haggis, P. (Director). (2004). Crash [Film; director's cut on DVD]. Bob Yari Productions; DEJ Productions; Blackfriars Bridge; Harris Company; ApolloProScreen Productions; Bull's Eye Entertainment.

(Haggis, 2004)

Note: If the edition of the film you used is important, such as a special extended edition, include that in the brackets.

Source: Publication Manual, 10.12 (examples 84-85); Film and Television References [APA Style]

The library databases Films on Demand and Academic Video Online (Alexander Street) may contain different types of videos, including full films and television episodes. You may not be able to identify a director for a video; begin with the title in that case. Identify as many of the components as you are able.

Film Template

Director, A. A. (Director). (Year). Title of video [Film]. Production Company.

Title of video [Film]. (Year). Production Company.

Film Example

My brain and I [Film]. (2012). ORF.

(My Brain, 2012)

Episode Template

Title of episode (Season X, Episode X) [TV series episode]. (Year). In Title of series. Production Company.

Television Example

The Vikings, from Paris to Normandy (Season 3) [TV series episode]. (2019). In Butterfly effect. Balanga.

("The Vikings," 2019)

Publication Manual, 10.2 (example 84)

Use this for videos posted on websites or blogs, such as YouTube, TED, a news website, etc. If you are citing a direct quotation from a video, you can use the time stamp in place of a page number within the in-text citation (see Example 1).

Template

Author, A. A. [username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Website. http://xxxxx

Example 1: Full Name

Jones, P. [patrickJMT]. (2009, October 24). Easily memorize the unit circle [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=03McKEg9ASA

(Jones, 2009, 1:15)

Example 2: User Name Only

Vercamath. (2011, July 25). Parallel universes explained [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GWaB3SksOQU

(Vercamath, 2011)

Example 3: TED Talk

Gavagan, E. (2012, April). A story about knots and surgeons [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/ed_gavagan_a_story_about_knots_and_surgeons

(Gavagan, 2012)

TED. (2016, August 30). Suzanne Simard: How trees talk to each other [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Un2yBgIAxYs

(TED, 2016)

Note: If citing from the TED website, list the speaker as the author. If citing from YouTube, list TED (or the account) as the author and include the speaker's name in the title.

Sources: Publication Manual, 9.8 and 10.12 (examples 88 and 90); YouTube Video References; TED Talk References [APA Style]

Template

Writer, A. A. (Writer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year, Month Day). Title of episode (Season X, Episode X) [TV series episode]. In C. C. Executive Producer (Executive Producer), Title of tv show. Production Company.

Example

Moffat, S. (Writer) & Macdonald, H. (Director). (2007, June 9). Blink (Season 3, Episode 10) [TV series episode]. In R. T. Davies (Executive Producer), Doctor who. BBC Studios.

(Moffat & Macdonald, 2007)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.12 (example 87); Film and Television References [APA Style]

Citation examples: Music and audio

Only cite an interview if it is retrievable. If it is a personal interview that is not able to be accessed by the reader, follow the guidelines for personal communication.

Template

Interviewee, A. A. (Year, month day interviewed). Title of interview [Interview]. Website. http://xxxxx

Example

Miller, C. (2019, October 7). Chanel Miller - Turning her pain into a rallying cry with Know My Name - Extended interview [Interview]. Comedy Central. http://www.cc.com/video-clips/58th1c/the-daily-show-with-trevor-noah-chanel-miller---turning-her-pain-into-a-rallying-cry-with--know-my-name----extended-interview

(Miller, 2019)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.13 (example 95)

Template

Artist, A. A. (Year). Title of song [Song]. On Title of album. Label. (Original work published Year).

Artist, A. A. (Year). Title of album [Album]. Label. (Original work published Year).

Example

Destiny's Child. (1999). Say my name [Song]. On The writing's on the wall. Columbia.

(Destiny's Child, 1999, 0:43)

Joel, B. (1978). 52nd street. Columbia.

(Joel, 1978)

Sources: Publication Manual, 10.13 (examples 91-92)

Template

Composer, A. A., & Librettist, B. B. (Year). Title of score [Type of Score]. Website. http://xxxxx (Original work published XXXX)

Example

Beethoven, L. van. (1810). Fur Elise [Musical score]. 8Notes.  http://www.8notes.com/scores/571.asp?ftype=gif

(Beethoven, 1810)

Source: Musical Score References [APA Style]

Template

Host, A. A. (Host). (Year, Month Day). Episode title (No. XX)  [Audio podcast episode]. In Title of podcast. Production Company. http://xxxxx

Example

Mars, R. (Host). (2019, September 30). The help-yourself city (No. 375) [Audio podcast episode]. In 99% invisible. Radiotopia. https://99percentinvisible.org/episode/the-help-yourself-city/

(Mars, 2019)

You may also cite the transcript of a podcast episode.

Vedantam, S. (2019, July 22). Facts aren't enough: The psychology of false beliefs [Audio podcast transcript]. In Hidden brain. NPR. https://www.npr.org/transcripts/743195213

(Vedantam, 2019)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.13 (examples 93-94); Transcript of an Audiovisual Work References [APA Style]

It is preferable to locate a speech in a retrievable source (e.g. in a book, website, video, etc.), and then cite that source.

Example 1: In a Book

Safire, W. (Ed.). (1997). Lend me your ears: Great speeches in history. W.W. Norton.

(Safire, 1997)

Example 2: Transcript on the Internet

King, M. J., Jr. (n.d.). The I have a dream speech [Speech transcript]. The U.S. Constitution Online. http://www.usconstitution.net/dream.html (Original work published 1963)

(King, n.d.)

Example 3: YouTube Video

Nobel Prize. (2020, January 10). Malala Yousafzai: Nobel Peace Prize lecture 2014 [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/c2DHzlkUI6s 

(Nobel Prize, 2020)

Example 4: From Vital Speeches of the Day

Manschreck, C. L. (1971). My conscience is bound by the word of God. Vital Speeches of the Day, 37(17), 540–545.

(Manschreck, 1971)

Example 5: Audio Recording

King, M. L., Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric. https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm

(King, 1963)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.13 (example 96); Transcript of an Audiovisual Work References [APA Style]

Citation examples: Social media

Template

Author, A. or ScreenName. (Year, Month Day). Title of blog post. Blog Title. http://xxxxx

Please note that for blogs, the post title is formatted normally and the blog title is italicized.

Example 1: Screen Name

Headsman. (2020, June 4). 1718: A horse thief and two travelers, "the worst rideing that I ever rid". ExecutedToday.com. http://www.executedtoday.com/2018/06/04/1718-a-horse-thief-and-two-travelers-the-worst-rideing-that-ever-i-rid/

(Headsman, 2020)

Example 2: Full Name

Harrison, J. (2019, April 4). Sam Smith & the sociology of body shaming.  Sociological Images. https://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2019/04/04/sam-smith-the-sociology-of-body-shaming/

(Harrison, 2019)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.1 (example 17); Blog Post and Blog Comment References [APA Style]

Facebook Page

Template

Author. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from http://xxxxx

Example

NOVA Libraries. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved June 16, 2020, from https://www.facebook.com/NOVALibraries

(NOVA Libraries, n.d.)


Specific Posting On Facebook Profile or Page

If you cite a particular post, you must cite it in the References page; you can follow the example and guidelines below.

  • Include the author name as written (name or an organization).
  • You do not need to include the time, simply the day and year.
  • Provide the entire posting, up to the first 20 words.
  • Include the URL of the specific post if possible.

Template

Author. (Year, Month Day). Text of Facebook post, up to 20 words [Image attached] [Status update/Video/Infographic/Image]. Facebook. http://xxxxx

Example

NOVA Libraries. (2020, April 22). Happy #NationalLibraryWeek, Nighthawks! We'd like to share with you a lovely resource from Stimola Live. [Thumbnail link attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/302457873133144/posts/3026460827399488/

(NOVA Libraries, 2020)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.15 (examples 105-106); Facebook References [APA Style]

Template

Author, A. A. [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Text of caption [Photograph(s)/Video(s)]. Instagram. http://xxxxx

Example

NOVA Libraries [@novalibraries]. (2020, June 15). Happy Pride from all of us at the #MECCampus library! We see you, you belong here. [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/CBdctnrpFEQ

(NOVA Libraries, 2020)

Source: Publication Manual 10.15 (examples 107-108); Instagram References [APA Style]

Online forum post

If the author's real name is known, put that first and enclose the screen name in brackets.
e.g. Obama, B. [PresidentObama].

If the author's real name is unknown, provide the username without brackets.
e.g. no-tea.

Include the title of the post up to the first 20 words.

Template

Author, A. A. [username]. (date). Title of post up to first 20 words [Online forum post]. Forum name. http://xxxxx

Example

no-tea. (2018, January 16). Why do American high schools and universities use the nomenclature "freshman, sophomore, junior, senior" instead of, e.g., 1st-year, 2nd-year, etc.? [Online forum post]. Reddit. https://redd.it/7qujn5k

Obama, B. [PresidentObama]. (2012, August 29). I am Barack Obama, president of the United States -- AMA [Online forum post]. Reddit. https://redd.it/z1c9z

Online forum comment

Template

Author, A. A. [username]. (date). Title of post up to first 20 words [Comment on the online forum post Full title of the post]. Forum name. http://linktocomment

Example

FifthSurprise. (2012, August 29). What was the most difficult decision that you had to make during this term? [Comment on the online forum post I am Barack Obama, president of the United States -- AMA]. Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/z1c9z/i_am_barack_obama_president_of_the_united_states/c60mmg8/

Source: Publication Manual, 10.15 (example 109); Online forum references [APA Style]

TikTok Video

Template

Author, A. A. [@TikTokusername]. (date). First 20 words of the caption [Video]. TikTok. http://xxxxx

Example

Ramsay, G. [@gordonramsayofficial]. (2020, August 24). That Monday feeling....right ??? Hopefully your day isn’t a hot sauce in your eye kind of day 😜 #fyp #backatwork [Video]. TikTok. https://www.tiktok.com/@gordonramsayofficial/video/6864603985794305285


TikTok Profile

Template

Author, A. A. [@TikTokusername]. (n.d.). First 20 words of the description [TikTok profile]. TikTok. Retrieved month, day, year, from http://xxxxx

Example

Author, A. A. [@gordonramsayofficial]. (n.d.). I cook sometimes too..... [TikTok profile]. TikTok. Retrieved September 21, 2020, from https://www.tiktok.com/@gordonramsayofficial

Source: TikTok References [APA Style]

Twitter Profile

Template

Author, A. A. [@twittername]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from http://xxxxx

Example

Tyson, N. G. [@neiltyson]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from https://twitter.com/neiltyson

(Tyson, 2019)


Tweet

If you cite a particular post ('tweet'), you must cite it in the References page; you can follow the example and guidelines below.

  • Include the Twitter username as written (be it a name or an organization).
  • You do not need to include the time, simply the day and year.
  • Since tweets are limited to 140 characters, you should include the entire text, including URLs.
  • The URL should be for the specific tweet, not the entire feed.
  • Replicate emojis if possible.
  • If an image or video are included, add square brackets before the Tweet indication.

Template

Author, A. A. [@twittername]. (Year, Month Day). Full text of tweet [Image attached/Thumbnail with link attached/etc] [Tweet]. Twitter. http://xxxxx

Examples

Obama, B. [@BarackObama]. (2009, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020: http://bit.ly/gcTX7 [Tweet]. Twitter. http://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366

(Obama, 2009)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration [@NASA]. (2020, June 15). Mark the date: spacewalks coming soon. Watch and @AstroBehnken venure outside the @Space_Station to finish upgrading our orbital lab's power channels: https://go.nasa.gov/3hslna5 [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/NASA/status/1272560249350881284

First Citation: (National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA], 2020)

Subsequent Citations: (NASA, 2020)

Source: Publication Manual 10.15 (examples 103-104); Twitter References [APA Style]

Citation examples: Online images

You may also need to include an image attribution if reproducing the image in your paper; see Figures & Images.

Template

Artist, A. A. (Year). Title of work [Medium: Painting, sculpture, etc.]. Museum Name, Museum City, Country.

Example

Garrity, Sallie E. (1893). Ida B. Wells-Barnett [Photograph]. National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC., United States.

You may also need to include an image attribution if reproducing the image in your paper; see Figures & Images.

Template

Artist, A.A. (Year). Title of work [Painting, sculpture, etc.]. Museum Name, Museum City, Country. http://xxxxx

Example

Bacon, Peggy. (1934). Dorothy Parker [Drawing]. National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC., United States. https://npg.si.edu/object/npg_NPG.96.5.

You may also need to include an image attribution if reproducing the image in your paper; see Figures & Images.

Template

Creator, A.A. (Year). Title of work [Infographic]. Website. http://xxxxx

Example

National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. (2013, February 6). Protect babies from whopping cough [Infographic]. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/infographics/protect-babies-from-whooping-cough.html

You may also need to include an image attribution if reproducing the image in your paper; see Figures & Images.

Template

Author (Year). Title of image [Photograph]. Website. http://xxxxx

Example

Science in HD. (n.d.). Living large [Photograph]. Unsplash. https://unsplash.com/photos/te465W47_b8

(Science in HD, n.d.)

Source: Clip Art or Stock Image References [APA Style]

Additional resources

APA Style Team. (2020, March 19). What's new in the seventh edition publication manualAPA Style Blog. https://apastyle.apa.org/blog/whats-new-7e

Myers, M., Paiz, J., Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M.,…Keck, R. (2019, December 20). General format. Purdue Online Writing Lab. https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/general_format.html  

Selander, E. (2018). Formatting your paperAPA 7 Citation Style Guide. https://libguides.nvcc.edu/APACitationStyle